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วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 6 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2557

4. Utilities and tools for system maintenance


4.1 Windows Task Manager
          Windows Task Manager is a task manager, system monitor and startup manager included with the Microsoft Windows, that provides limited information about computer performance and running applications, processes and CPU usage, commit charge and memory information, network activity and statistics, logged-in users, and system services. As often is the case with software tools provided by Microsoft for Windows, 3rd party software is available which fills the requirements more thoroughly, e.g., "Process Explorer", "Extended Task Manager", "Anvir Task Manager", "Process Hacker", and "System Explorer".[1] The Task Manager can also be used to set process priorities, processor affinity, forcibly terminate processes, and shut down, restart, hibernate or log off from Windows. Windows Task Manager was introduced with Windows NT 4.0. Previous versions of Windows NT included the Task List application, which had far fewer features. The task list was capable of listing currently running processes and killing them, or creating a new process. In Windows XP only, a Shutdown menu is also present that allows access to Standby, Hibernate, Turn off, Restart, Log Off and Switch User. Earlier versions of Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows 98) had a program known as tasks to display the programs currently running. This file was executed by running the taskman.exe file from the C:\Windows directory.




 4.2 CPU meter gadget
          The CPU meter gadget, which is an abbreviation of central processing unit metre, is a metre that is used to keep track of how much memory is in the CPU and the computer. It is basically a reminder that helps you monitor your computer's performance. This gadget definitely comes in handy to show you when you need to free up some space.




4.3 Anti-virus Software
         Antivirusanti-virus, or AV software is computer software used to prevent, detect and remove malicious computer viruses. Most software described as antivirus also works against other types of malware, such as malicious Browser Helper Objects (BHOs), browser hijackers, ransomware, keyloggers, backdoors, rootkits, trojan horses, worms, malicious LSPs, dialers, fraudtools,adware and spyware. Computer security, including protection from social engineering techniques, is commonly offered in products and services of antivirus software companies. This page discusses the software used for the prevention, detection, and removal of malware threats, rather than computer security implemented by software methods.
         A variety of strategies are typically employed. Signature-based detection involves searching for known patterns of data within executable code. However, it is possible for a computer to be infected with new malware for which no signature is yet known; and malware is often modified to change its signature without affecting functionality. To counter such so-called zero-day threats, heuristicscan be used. One type of heuristic approach, generic signatures, can identify variants by looking for slight variations of known malicious code in files. Some antivirus software can also predict what a file will do by running it in a sandbox and analyzing what it does to see if it performs any actions which could be malicious.
          Antivirus software has some drawbacks. It can impair a computer's performance. Inexperienced users can be lulled into a false sense of security when using the computer, considering themselves to be totally protected, and may have problems understanding the prompts and decisions that antivirus software presents them with. An incorrect decision may lead to a security breach. If the antivirus software employs heuristic detection, it must be fine-tuned to minimize misidentifying harmless software as malicious (false positive). Antivirus software itself usually runs at the highly trusted kernel level of the operating system to allow it access to all potential malicious process and files, creating a potential avenue of attack.


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